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'Bibemus Quarry', 1895 (oil on canvas) by Paul Cézanne (1839-1906), a precursor of Cubism. He compressed the space in his paintings and made it rather shallow, his brush strokes were like small squares, and he used multiple views in a painting. Picasso, in particular, was intrigued/impressed by his technique, which he took further with the outcome of the Cubist Movement.
Les Demoiselles d'Avignon represents Picasso's époque negre (black era) which was inspired by African art and overlaps the first phase in cubism, which is called analytical cubism. Analytical cubism lasted until 1911 and is characterized by monochrome, relatively unemotional paintings that depict rather uneventful subjects, such as still lives.