The sand cat [Felis margarita], also known as the Sand Dune Cat, is the only felid found primarily in true desert and has a wide but apparently disjunctive distribution through the deserts of northern Africa and southwest and central Asia.
What cat?: The manul, an ancient breed of small cats, 12 million years old. They can't be domesticated and are classified as "near threatened". They live on the Asian Steppes. Check out the link for lots of photos! (Also called Pallas cat)
The Margay (Leopardus wiedii) is a spotted cat native to Middle and South America. Named for Prince Maximilian of Wied-Neuwied, it is a solitary and nocturnal animal that prefers remote sections of the rainforest. Although it was once believed to be vulne