Stoicism. Major Thinkers include Zeno (334 -262 BCE), Cleanthes (303-233 BCE), Epictetus (60-117 CE), and Marcus Aurelius (121 -180 CE).Key Concepts. Greatest good comes from wisdom, virtue, and acceptance of what cannot be directly controlled. Stoic virtues include wisdom, courage, justice, and temperance. Self-control and fortitude are a way of mastering destructive emotions.